Academic references to outcomes theory: Duignan (2009d; 2009a; 2004a)*
The building-blocks in the Diagram can be seen as similar to the basic building-blocks of any accounting system (e.g. assets register , general ledger). These are necessary if you want to have a sound accounting system.
In the same way, a sound outcomes system usually needs all of Duignan's outcomes system building-blocks.
Duignan's Outcomes System Diagram can be used to build or fix any type of outcomes system in any sector.
To critique an existing outcomes system, check if it has all of the building-blocks. If not, you need to put in place any it doesn't include.
For instance, many outcomes systems don't distinguish between building-block two and three. This creates confusion because no one is clear about which indicators are controllable by the program/organization and which are not.
* This particular reference can be cited to refer to the material on this page.